Expansión neutral de carbono de plantaciones de palma de aceite en el neotrópico

  • Juan Carlos Quezada
  • Andrés Etter
  • Jaboury Ghazoul
  • Alexandre Buttler
  • Thomas Guillaume
Palabras clave: uso del suelo, deforestación, huella de carbono

Resumen

Se requieren alternativas a las trayectorias de cambio de uso del suelo con deforestación, las cuales son ecológicamente devastadoras, para reducir la huella de carbono de las plantaciones de palma de aceite (PA) en el trópico. Si bien se han propuesto varias opciones de cambio, hasta el momento no existen datos empíricos sobre sus efectos a largo plazo en las reservas de carbono del ecosistema. Nuestros resultados muestran que la conversión de pastos a cultivos de PA en regiones de sabana no modifica el almacenamiento de carbono después de 56 años en Colombia. En comparación con la conversión de selvas tropicales, este cambio del uso del suelo alternativo reduce las pérdidas netas de carbono del ecosistema en 99,7 ± 9,6 %. El carbono orgánico del suelo (COS) se redujo hasta 36 años después de la conversión debido a la rápida descomposición del carbono derivado de pastos, contrarrestando las ganancias de este en la biomasa de PA. La recuperación del contenido de carbono en la capa superior del suelo sugiere que las reservas de COS podrían recobrarse parcialmente durante un tercer ciclo de plantación. Por lo tanto, se puede lograr una mayor sostenibilidad de la PA si su expansión se encamina hacia pastizales.

 

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Publicado
2020-07-16
Cómo citar
Quezada , J. C., Etter, A., Ghazoul, J., Buttler , A., & Guillaume , T. (2020). Expansión neutral de carbono de plantaciones de palma de aceite en el neotrópico. Revista Palmas, 41(1), 88-109. Recuperado a partir de https://publicaciones.fedepalma.org/index.php/palmas/article/view/13128
Sección
Sostenibilidad