Aprendiendo a amar al cultivo más odiado del mundo

  • T. A. Jackson
  • J. W. Crawford
  • C. Traeholt
  • T. A. B. Sanders
Palabras clave: palma de aceite, sostenibilidad, respuesta a críticos

Resumen

El informe Cambio Climático y Tierra de 2019 del Panel Intergubernamental del Cambio Cli- mático (IPCC, por sus siglas en inglés) resaltó la urgencia y escala del impacto ambiental que tienen las transformaciones antropogénicas en el paisaje. Históricamente, el aceite de palma ha tenido una reputación negativa por impulsar la deforestación, la pérdida de biodiversidad, las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, la explotación social y causar daños a la salud. A los ojos de muchos, en el mundo occidental es considerado como el cultivo más odiado. Sin embargo, la palma es altamente productiva en comparación con otros cultivos y genera el 40 % del aceite comestible del planeta con tan solo el 5 % de tierras productoras de aceite vegetal y el 0,4 % del total de tierras agrícolas. Tiene el potencial de satisfacer la demanda futura de aceite con mínimo impacto ambiental y climático en comparación con otras fuentes de aceite vegetal.

La densidad de alto valor relacionada tiene el potencial de sacar a millones de pequeños productores agrícolas de la pobreza. Dadas las conclusiones del informe Cambio Climático y Tierra del IPCC, es importante reexaminar la reputación de este cultivo a la luz de la evidencia acumulada y entender adecuadamente todos los impactos que tiene en factores ambientales, sociales, económicos y de salud. En este artículo se presenta una crítica integral de los beneficios y riesgos del cultivo en estas dimensiones y se proporciona una nueva síntesis. Se concluye que aunque la palma de aceite ha tenido un impacto negativo en el hábitat y la biodiversidad, juega un papel menor en comparación con la caza furtiva, la tala ilegal y las amenazas del cambio climático. Hay oportunidades importantes para que la industria reverse este daño. Su reputación negativa frente a la salud no está sustentada por evidencia científica y, de hecho, reemplazar algunos aceites en la dieta con aceite de palma puede ser benéfico. Los impactos económicos y sociales son más obvios en áreas en las que se han establecido economías de mercado adecuadas, pero puede haber impactos negativos significativos en áreas menos desarrolladas. También se concluye que gran parte de la reputación del aceite de palma no está basada en una interpretación equilibrada de la evidencia científica. Siempre y cuando los desarrollos futuros utilicen tecno- logías de captura de metano en las plantas de beneficio, empoderen a los pequeños productores indígenas, apoyen la regeneración de bosques secundarios y no impliquen deforestación ni ocurran en turba, concluimos que la palma de aceite puede ser el medio más sostenible ambiental, social y económicamente viable para satisfacer la demanda futura de aceite vegetal. De hecho, con colaboraciones proactivas con organizaciones no gubernamentales relevantes, la palma de aceite puede ser parte de la solución para reversar la degradación de los biomas de bosques tropicales.

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Publicado
2020-07-16
Cómo citar
Jackson, T. A., Crawford, J. W., Traeholt , C., & Sanders , T. A. B. (2020). Aprendiendo a amar al cultivo más odiado del mundo. Revista Palmas, 41(1), 64-87. Recuperado a partir de https://publicaciones.fedepalma.org/index.php/palmas/article/view/13127
Sección
Sostenibilidad